Environmental obesogens[ edit ] Studies have shown that obesity has become increasingly prevalent in both people and animals such as pets and laboratory animals.
According to Professor Robert H. Whatever is happening is happening to everyone, suggesting an environmental trigger. Chemical obesogens are molecules that do not properly regulate lipid metabolism in the body and could therefore promote obesity. Data is scarce, but some in-vitro studies have found this model could be an accurate predictor of future obesity. A study suggested that smoking before and during pregnancy, for example, increases the risk of obesity twofold in children of school age.
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These obesogens are present in common-use products. In a University at Albany, State University of New York study, organotins were found in a designer handbag, vinyl blinds, wallpaper, tile, and vacuum cleaner dust collected from 20 houses. Effects of obesogens in animals are the same effects researchers see later in life for low-birth weight babies — glucose intolerance and more abdominal fat. Some endocrine disrupting chemicals EDCs belong to this class of compounds.
Bruce Blumberg, a professor of developmental and cell biology at UC Irvine, has found compelling evidence that exposure súlycsökkentő helyek Louisville ky-ben the chemical Tributyltin TBTa compound used in pesticidescan trigger fat cell creation.
Among a wide variety of health risks, farm workers may bear a disproportionate risk of exposure to such obesogens. While legislation has been enacted to require a minimum amount of time to pass before workers enter sprayed fields, the lack of legal and political power kreatív zsírégető many farm workers combined with the fact that enforcing such laws can be difficult, makes exposure to obesogens a possible threat to the livelihood of many farm work Race[ edit ] Race and genetics[ edit ] According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDCthe obesity have been affecting some groups more than others.
Hispanics Some researchers have found that genetics increase the likelihood of occurrence of obesity through higher levels of fat deposition and adipokine secretion. In a recent study of 70, men and women of African ancestry, researchers found three new common genetic variants.
Therefore, individuals who carry these variants are more at risk of becoming obese. Researchers noted that these genetic variants are but a very small determination in most cases of obesity.
It is generally agreed upon by many in the medical community that environmental factors and poor health and eating habits are still considered to be the strongest contributors to obesity. Visceral fat is significant because it has been more strongly linked to the risk of disease as compared to fat stored in other parts of the body.
A recent study in the American Journal of Public Health found a strong correlation between community demographics and the likelihood of inhabitants being obese. In this study, non-Hispanic Blacks Food deserts are also more likely to be located in these neighborhoods, which limits available food options.
Additionally, these communities also tend to have less access to public goods such as parks. Social perspective[ edit ] Weight bias and stigma[ edit ] Weight bias is an ongoing field of study that has garnered much more attention in the past few years.
There are some studies that focus on obesity-related stigmatization.
Multiple academics cite that people who are overweight and obese have been treated súlycsökkentő helyek Louisville ky-ben in almost all aspects of their life because due to the stereotypes commonly attributed to overweight.
Laziness, incompetence, weakness of will, sloppiness, and untrustworthiness to name a few of them. Such weight stigma can be defined as derogatory comments, preferential treatment towards normal-weight colleagues, and denial szakács aj végső fogyás irányelvek employment. In another study of 2, nationally representative adults aged 25—74, overweight respondents, obese respondents, and severely obese respondents were 12, 37, and times more likely to report employment discrimination than normal-weight respondents, respectively.
Studies show that wages can also be reduced. Data suggests that after controlling a fogyás legjobb módja pcókkal other socioeconomic factors, limitations of health, and other household variables, obese men were expected to see a 0.
In one United Kingdom study, physicians tended to follow a victim-blaming approach about the causes súlycsökkentő helyek Louisville ky-ben obesity, while the obese patients themselves attributed their weight to specific medical causes or other socioeconomic factors, such as low income.
Disparities in perceived causation have been seen in some circles as a major hindrance towards physicians and patients abilities to come up with a balanced obesity management plan.
A study of overSwedish men found that, after controlling for intelligence and parental socioeconomic levels, those who were obese at the age of 18 had a lower chance of going to college than their peers, who were of normal weight.
It was also found in this study that female students who attended school where most of the females were obese had a relatively similar chance of attending college as non-obese women. Identifying and causing awareness of this complicated relation between these two diseases is necessary in developing progress and solutions that are not yet accessible.
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Because these two diseases are so closely related, it is crucial that patients being assessed for obesity be examined and assessed thoughtfully of their mental health status. Public health policies, according to the Charter, should itemize the prevention of mental illness and weight-concerned disorders, and recognize the relationship of both conditions to cultural, gender, socioeconomic, and other health elements.
In order to create a type of cultural change, training as well as collaboration of health professionals, focusing on interventions, support, preventions, and collaboration with related specialties is crucial. Health Professionals need be more aware that anyone with one of these health issues, obesity or mental illnessis automatically more susceptible to develop the other one.
Patients who are assessed for obesity are seen to have a meghajolni, hogy elveszítse a karját health condition. This is not just in a physical health sense, but extremities in mental health as well.
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People who are obese tend to have more increased rates of depression than those who are not overweight. Research done at the University of Wisconsin-Madison by Dr.
David A. Kats and his colleagues shows that out of 2, patients who exhibit chronic health conditions, that clinical depression was highest in extreme obese patients BMI over Other research done by the Swedish Obese Subjects SOShave indicated that clinically significant depression is about three to four times higher in severely obese individuals than in those who are not obese.
Professor Marianne Sullivan and her team from Sahlgrenska University Hospital noted from their findings and experience that people who are obese have exhibited depression scores just as bad as, or worse than súlycsökkentő helyek Louisville ky-ben of patients with chronic physical pain. They state in a journal article that "Depression on a level indicating psychiatric morbidity was more often seen in the obese". These obligations include, but are not limited to, chores, jobs, family assistance, and household management.
Youth from less affluent homes are likely to work longer hours than youth from more affluent homes. Many studies have been conducted to provide insight into whether genetics are to blame, or economic and environmental circumstances.
According to the " thrifty gene hypothesis ",  a common genetic theory for rising obesity rates súlyos súlycsökkenés nyulaknál that some people are genetically predisposed to more efficiently metabolize súlycsökkentő helyek Louisville ky-ben than others.
This is a result of years of human evolution.
Obesity and the environment - Wikipedia
In times of scarcity, these genes were essential in ensuring survival, and in times of abundance, cause obesity. The thrifty genotype is one theory to explain obesity. The tendency to be sedentary and increasing rates of sugar and fat súlycsökkentő helyek Louisville ky-ben are also linked to obesity prevalence.
The propensity for children to be less active can be attributed to the accessibility to safe play areas and after school programs, which differ between different socioeconomic classes.
Studies have shown that rates of participation in after school programs is similarly low across all socioeconomic groups. Current research shows that this may be due to external factors other than the willingness or need to participate.
Research shows that children that come from high-socioeconomic households typically do not participate in after-school programs because they are already involved in a wide range of other activities not funded by the school.
Children that come from low-socioeconomic households, however, typically do not participate because of a lack of ability to participate. Lack of transportation is another obstacle to utilizing play spaces and after-school programs. It's very uncommon for after-school programs to have the resources to provide transportation. Poor youth are less likely to have access to a car, and more likely to live in high crime neighborhoods, making it difficult to take public transportation or walk.
With this, that use of technology takes away from youth outdoor interaction. This issue contradicts with the belief that children who come from high-income homes are less likely to become obese considering they usually have more access to be active in their surrounding 'environmental space'.
With the ongoing advancement in technology, those who have access- especially children of wealthy working parents- are súlycsökkentő helyek Louisville ky-ben likely to spend time sitting still being attentive to either a television or computer screen rather than moving around outdoors.
This use and focus on technology not only takes away from physical activity time for a child, but also plays a role in negatively affecting a child's health.
Technology being a direct factor to obesity goes hand in hand amongst children, teens and adults. Not only does the use and increase in technology affect the weight of children who tend to spend more time indoors using this technology rather than being active outdoors, technology advancements also play a role in those adults who spend most of their time working behind and using a computer in general.
According to research done by two economists from the Milken Institute, a statistic shows for every 10 percent rise in what a country spends on technology, there's a 1. The more time an individual spends sitting down at a desk working behind a computer, the less time her or she spends outdoors, at the gym, and just moving around in general.
According to Ross DeVol—a chief research officer at the Milken Institute claims—'Common sense says if you sit around in front of the screen, don't exercise while you are working, change your diet…you are going to gain weight,'. Department of Agriculture conducted a "food desert" study to examine access to supermarkets. They found that More than studies have been conducted to determine if healthy food and supermarkets are equally accessible to every socioeconomic class.
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Studies in which supermarkets were compared to other food outlets such as small grocery stores and convenience stores were also conducted; in this study supermarkets were used as a proxy for food access, for they provide the most reliable access to a wide variety of nutritious and affordable food.
The study showed that low-income and minority communities had less supermarkets and more convenience and small grocery súlycsökkentő helyek Louisville ky-ben as compared to predominantly súlycsökkentő helyek Louisville ky-ben and wealthy communities. Zip codes composed of predominantly African-American households have about half the amount of chain supermarkets, as do zip codes composed of végső fogyás plymouth mn White households.
The same study also found that predominantly white neighborhoods have four times as many supermarkets as predominantly African-American neighborhoods. There are 2. Predominantly white regions have 1. One in five of the city's food stamp recipients lives in a neighborhood without a grocery store.
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These food stores are also more likely to offer lower quality items at higher prices, compared to food stores in predominantly white communities. Neighborhoods that lack access to nutritious foods are considered to be food deserts. A report issued in by the Urban and Environmental Policy Institute at Occidental College found out that "middle- and upper-income neighborhoods in Los Angeles had 2.
A study that was conducted in 21 of the nation's largest metropolitan areas found that there are fewer and smaller stores in low-income zip codes than in their wealthier counterparts. For example, corner markets in low-income neighborhoods are less likely to offer healthy selections such as whole-grain breads and lower-fat and dairy options. A study that was conducted in Chicago found that "African-American neighborhoods had According to the USDA recommendation for daily caloric intake, a McDonald's meal has more súlycsökkentő helyek Louisville ky-ben half a day's worth of calories.
The alternative would be purchasing low quality groceries at a high cost. To combat this in the city of Chicago inthen Mayor Emmanuel partnered with Growing Power, which transported affordable fresh fruits and vegetables to food desert areas.
The Green Carts program estimated that they would improve the health of 75, New Yorkers and save at least 50 lives a year over the long term.
These teams provided grants to states to create healthy eating programs as well as establish physical activity for children. They should create an environment that support both healthy eating and physical activity. School lunches should be healthy and provide appealing healthy food and drink choices outside the meal program. Schools should establish physical education programs as a cornerstone, as well as implement health education ensuring that students gain the proper knowledge necessary for healthy eating and physical activity.
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Students should be provided with mental health and social services, as well as schools should partner with families and community members to develop and implement healthy eating and physical activities outside of school. Schools should employ qualified professionals and provide staff with professional development opportunities in areas such as physical education, health education, nutrition services, and mental health. Under the Healthy Kids Act schools required more stringent nutritional standards for meals served in in cafeterias.